Hoengqceiqlwnh (Cybernetics) dwg cungj gva yozgoh yenzgiu, gvendaengz gij heifdoengj gamguenj. De caeuq leixlwnh sinsik、leixlwnh hoengqceiq、leixlwnh heahdoengj gvenheah gaenjmaed. Hoengqceiqlwnh doiq heiqdoengj faedleix caeuq heiqdoengj biengz cungj habyungh.
Cybernetics is only applicable when the system being analysed is involved in a closed signal loop; that is, where action by the system causes some change in its environment and that change is fed to the system via information (feedback) that enables the system to change its behavior. This "circular causal" relationship is necessary and sufficient for a cybernetic perspective.模板:Citation needed System Dynamics, a related field, originated with applications of electrical engineering control theory to other kinds of simulation models (especially business systems) by Jay Forrester at MIT in the 1950s.
Contemporary cybernetics began as an interdisciplinary study connecting the fields of control systems, electrical network theory, mechanical engineering, logic modeling, evolutionary biology, neuroscience, anthropology, and psychology in the 1940s, often attributed to the Macy Conferences.
Other fields of study which have influenced or been influenced by cybernetics include game theory, system theory (a mathematical counterpart to cybernetics), perceptual control theory, sociology, psychology (especially neuropsychology, behavioral psychology, cognitive psychology), philosophy, and architecture and organizational theory.
- Tange, Kenzo (1966) "Function, Structure and Symbol".