Liuz Siujboh

okcih Wikipedia

Liuz Siujboh (Sawgun:刘晓波, seng youq 1955 nienz 12 nyied 28 hauh)[1], Cunghgoz vwnzyoz bihbingzgya, cozgya, gyausou caeuq yinzgienz hozdunggya, de ngawz Cunghgoz cwngci gaijgwz caueq Cunghgung duzcaiz roengzmuq. [2] Seizneix de youq guh bouxfamh cwngci.

Liuz Siujboh youq 2003 nienz daengj 2007 nienz dang Duzliz cunghvwnz bizvei cujsiz.[3] Coengz cungh 1990 nienzdaih haihij, de lij dwg Minzcuj cunghgoz cabceiq cungjbien. 2008 nienz 12 nyied 8 hauh, Liuz Siujboh aen'vih canhgya ciemdingh 08 yencangh gwn laengz. 2009 nienz 6 nyied 23 hauh gwn gaemh, coihmingz dwg yoekfeiz diemhfuz guekgya cingqcienz.[4][5] dingh hingz 8 nienz.[6]

2010 nienz de aen'vih feibauhlig gangcwngh ndaej Nobel hozbingz ciengj.[7][8][9][10]


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Liu was born in Changchun, Jilin, in 1955 to an intellectual family. In 1969, during the Down to the Countryside Movement, Liu's father took him to Horqin Right Front Banner, Inner Mongolia. After he finished middle school in 1974, he was sent to the countryside to work on a farm in Jilin.

In 1977, Liu was admitted to the Department of Chinese Literature at Jilin University, where he created a poetry group known as "The Innocent Hearts" (Chi Zi Xin) with six schoolmates.[11] In 1982, he graduated with B.A. in literature before being admitted as a research student at the Department of Chinese Literature at Beijing Normal University. In 1984, he received an M.A. in literature and became a teacher at the same department.[12][13][14] That year, he married Tao Li, with whom he had a son named Liu Tao in 1985.

In 1986, Liu started his doctoral study program and published his literary critiques at various magazines. He became well known as a "dark horse" for his radical opinions and sharp comments on the official doctrines and establishments to shock both of the literary and ideological circles, thus termed as "Liu Xiaobo Shock" or "Liu Xiaobo Phenomenon".[15] In 1987, his first book, Criticism of the Choice: Dialogues with Li Zehou, was published and became a bestseller non-fiction.[15] It comprehensively criticised the Chinese tradition of Confucianism and posed a frank challenge to Li Zehou, a rising ideological star who had a strong influence on young intellectuals in China at the time.[15]

In June 1988, he received Ph.D. in literature. His doctoral thesis, Aesthetic and Human Freedom, passed the examination unanimously and was published as his second book.[16] In the same year he became a lecturer at the same department. He soon became a visiting scholar at several universities, including Columbia University, the University of Oslo, and the University of Hawaii. He returned home as the 1989 Tiananmen Square protests broke out. This year saw also the publication of his third book, The Fog of Metaphysics, a comprehensive review on Western philosophies. Soon, all of his works were banned.模板:Citation needed

Cwngci gvanhdenj

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In a 1988 interview with Hong Kong's Liberation Monthly (now known as Open Magazine), Liu was asked what it would take for China to realize a true historical transformation. He replied:

"[It would take] 300 years of colonialism. In 100 years of colonialism, Hong Kong has changed to what we see today. With China being so big, of course it would require 300 years as a colony for it to be able to transform into how Hong Kong is today. I have my doubts as to whether 300 years would be enough."[17][18]

Liu admitted in 2006 that the response was extemporaneous, although he did not intend to take it back, as it represented "an extreme expression of his longheld belief."[18] The quote was nonetheless used against him. He has commented, "Even today [in 2006], radical patriotic 'angry youth' still frequently use these words to paint me with 'treason'."[18]

Known for his pro-West stance, Liu once stated in an interview: "Modernization means whole-sale westernization, choosing a human life is choosing Western way of life. Difference between Western and Chinese governing system is humane vs in-humane, there's no middle ground... Westernization is not a choice of a nation, but a choice for the human race" [19]

During the 1989 Tiananmen Square protests, he was in the United States but decided to return to China to join the movement. He was later named as one of the "four junzis of Tiananmen Square" for persuading students to leave the square and thus saving hundreds of lives.[20]

In his 1996 article titled "Lessons from the Cold War", Liu argues that "The free world led by the US fought almost all regimes that trampled on human rights … The major wars that the US became involved in are all ethically defensible." He has defended U.S. policies in the Israeli–Palestinian conflict, which he thinks is the fault of the "provocateur" Palestinians.[21]

Liu also published a 2004 article in support of Bush's war on Iraq, titled "Victory to the Anglo-American Freedom Alliance", in which he praised the U.S.-led post-Cold War conflicts as "best examples of how war should be conducted in a modern civilization." He predicted "a free, democratic and peaceful Iraq will emerge."[22] During the 2004 US presidential election, Liu again praised Bush for his war effort against Iraq and condemned Democratic Party candidate John Kerry for not sufficiently supporting the wars in which the U.S. was then involved. He commented on Islamism that, "a cul­ture and (reli­gious) sys­tem that pro­duced this kind of threat (Islamic fundamentalism), must be extremely intol­er­ant and blood-thirsty." On Israel, he said "with­out America’s pro­tec­tion, the long per­se­cuted Jews who faced exter­mi­na­tion dur­ing World War II, prob­a­bly would again be drowned by the Islamic world's hatred."[23][21]

Yinzcienz hozdung

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On 27 April 1989, Liu returned to Beijing and immediately and actively supported the popular movement. When the army looked set violently eject from Tiananmen Square the students who persistently occupied the Square to challenge the government and army enforcing the martial law, he initiated a four-man three-day hunger strike on 2 June. Later referred to as the "Tiananmen Four Gentlemen Hunger Strike", the action was to earn the trust from the students. He requested that the government and the students abandon the ideology of class struggle and to adopt a new kind of political culture for dialogue and compromise. Although it was too late to prevent the massacre from occurring beyond the Square starting from the night of 3 June, he and his colleagues successfully negotiated with the student leaders and the army commander to let all the several thousand students withdraw peacefully from the Square, thus avoiding a possible bloodshed in a much larger scale.

On 6 June, Liu was arrested and detained in Qincheng Prison for his alleged role in the movement, and three months later was expelled from the Beijing Normal University. The government's media issued numerous publications which labelled him a "mad dog" and "black hand" because he had allegedly incited and manipulated the student movement to overthrow the government and socialists. His publications were banned, including his fourth book in press, Going Naked Toward God. In Taiwan however, his first and third books were republished with some additions as Criticism of the Choice: Dialogues with Leading Thinker LI Zehou (1989), and the two-volume Mysteries of Thought and Dreams of Mankind (1990).

In January 1991, 19 months since his arrest, Liu Xiaobo was convicted on the offence of "counter-revolutionary propaganda and incitement"[6] but exempted from criminal punishment for his "major meritorious action" for having avoided the possibly bloody confrontation at Tiananmen Square. After his release, he was divorced and eventually his ex-wife and son immigrated to the US. He resumed his writing, mostly on human rights and political issues though he has not been allowed to publish in Mainland China. In 1992, he published in Taiwan his first book after his imprisonment, The Monologues of a Doomsday’s Survivor, a controversial memoir with his confessions and political criticism on the popular movement in 1989.

In January 1993, Liu was invited to visit Australia and the US for the interviews in the documentary film Gate of Heavenly Peace. Although many of his friends suggested that he take refuge abroad, Liu returned China in May 1993 and continued his freelance writing.

On 18 May 1995, the police took Liu into custody for launching a petition campaign on the eve of the sixth anniversary of June 4 massacre, calling on the government to reassess the event and to initiate political reform. He was held under residential surveillance in the suburbs of Beijing for 9 months. He was released in February 1996 but arrested again on 8 October for an October Tenth Declaration, co-authored by him and another prominent dissident Wang Xizhe, mainly on Taiwan issue that advocated the peaceful unification to oppose Chinese Communist Party's forceful treats toward the island. He was ordered to serve three years of re-education through labor[6][24] on "disturbing public order” for that statement.[25] In the same year, he married Liu Xia.

After his release on 7 October 1999, Liu Xiaobo resumed his freelance writing. However, it is reported[26] that the government built a sentry station next to his home and his phone calls and internet connections were tapped.

In 2000, he published in Taiwan A Nation That Lies to Conscience, a 400-paged political criticism. Also published, in Hong Kong, was Selection of Poems, a 450-paged collection of the poems as correspondences between him and his wife during his imprisonment; it was co-authored by Liu and his wife. The last of three books which he published during the year was in Mainland China, titled The Beauty Offers Me Drug: Literary Dialogues between Wang Shuo and Lao Xia, a 250-paged collection of literary critiques co-authored by a popular young writer and by himself under his unknown penname of "Lao Xiao". In the same year, Liu participated in founding the Independent Chinese PEN Centre and was elected to its board of directors as well as its president in November 2003, re-elected two years later. In 2007, he did not seek for the re-election of the president but hold his position of the board member until detained by the police in December 2008.

In 2004, when he started to write a Human Rights Report of China at home, his computer, letters and documents were confiscated by the government. He once said, "at Liu Xia's [Liu's wife] birthday, her best friend brought two bottles of wine to [my home] but was blocked by the police from coming in. I ordered a [birthday] cake and the police also rejected the man who delivered the cake to us. I quarreled with them and the police said, "it is for the sake of your security. It has happened many bomb attacks in these days."[26] Those measures were loosened until 2007, prior to the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games.[26]

In January 2005, following the death of former Chinese Premier Zhao Ziyang, who showed sympathy to protesters of the student demonstration in 1989, Liu was immediately put under house arrest for two weeks before realizing the death of Zhao.[27] In the same year, he published two more books in the US, Future of Free China Exists in Civil Society, and Single-Blade Poisonous Sword: Criticism of Chinese Nationalism.

His writing is considered subversive by the Chinese Communist Party, and his name is censored.[28] He has called for multi-party elections, free markets, advocated values of freedom, supported separation of powers and urged the governments to be accountable for its wrongdoings.[29] When not in prison, he has been the subject of government monitoring and put under house arrest during sensitive times.[26]

Liu's human rights work has received international recognition. In 2004, Reporters Without Borders awarded him the Fondation de France Prize as a defender of press freedom.[30]

Prison terms for Liu Xiaobo[31]
Prison term Reason Result
June 1989 – January 1991 Charged with spreading messages to instigate counterrevolutionary behavior. Imprisoned in one of China's best-known maximum security prisons, Qincheng Prison, and discharged when he signed a "letter of repentance."
May 1995 – January 1996 Being involved in democracy and human rights movement and voicing publicly the need to redress government's wrongdoings in the student protest of 1989 Released after being jailed for six months.
October 1996 – October 1999 Charged with disturbing the social order Jailed in a labor education camp for three years. In 1996, he married Liu Xia.
December 2009 – 2020 Charged with spreading a message to subvert the country and authority Sentenced for 11 years and deprived of all political rights for two years. Currently imprisoned in Jinzhou Prison in Liaoning Province.[32]

08 yencangh

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Conception and diffusion of the Charter

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Political protest in Hong Kong against the detention of Liu Xiaobo

Liu Xiaobo actively participated in the writing of and, along with more than three hundred Chinese citizens, signed Charter 08. The Charter is a manifesto released on 10 December 2008 to coincide with the 60th anniversary of the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. It was written in the style of the Czechoslovak Charter 77, calling for more freedom of expression, human rights, more democratic elections, for privatizing state enterprises and land and for economic liberalism.[33] As of September 2010, the Charter has collected over 10,000 signatures.[34][35]

Two days before the official release of the Charter, late in the evening of 8 December 2008, Liu was taken into custody by the police,[36] as was Zhang Zuhua, another scholar and Charter 08 signatory. According to Zhang, the two were detained on suspicion of gathering signatures to the Charter.[37] While Liu was detained in solitary confinement,[38] he was forbidden to meet with his lawyer or family, though he was allowed to eat lunch with his wife, Liu Xia, and two policemen on New Year's Day 2009.[39] On 23 June 2009, the Beijing procuratorate approved Liu's arrest on charges of "suspicion of inciting subversion of state power," a crime under Article 105 of China's Criminal Law.[40] In a Xinhua news release announcing Liu's arrest, the Beijing Public Security Bureau alleged that Liu had incited the subversion of state power and the overturn of the socialist system through methods such as spreading rumors and slander, citing almost verbatim Article 105; the Beijing PSB also noted that Liu had "fully confessed."[5]

On 1 December 2009, Beijing police transferred Liu's case to the procuratorate for investigation and processing;[41] on 10 December, the procuratorate formally indicted Liu on charges of "inciting subversion of state power" under and sent his lawyers, Shang Baojun and Ding Xikui, the indictment document.[41] He was tried at Beijing No. 1 Intermediate Court on 23 December 2009. His wife was not permitted to observe the hearing, although his brother-in-law was present.[41][42][43] Diplomats from more than a dozen states – including the U.S., Britain, Canada, Sweden, Australia and New Zealand – were denied access to the court to watch the trial and stood outside the court for its duration.[44] Amongst these included Gregory May, political officer at the U.S. Embassy, and Nicholas Weeks, first secretary of the Swedish Embassy.[45] 模板:Cquote

This statement, titled "I have no enemies", was later read in the 2010 Nobel Peace Prize ceremony, which Liu was unable to attend due to imprisonment.[46] On 25 December 2009, Liu was sentenced to eleven years' imprisonment and two years' deprivation of political rights by the Beijing No. 2 Intermediate Court on charges of "inciting subversion of state power." According to Liu's family and counsel, he plans to appeal the judgment.[6] In the verdict, Charter 08 was named as part of the evidence supporting his conviction.[6] John Pomfret of The Washington Post said Christmas Day was chosen to dump the news because the Chinese government believed Westerners were less likely to take notice on a holiday.[47] 模板:CquoteIn an article published in the South China Morning Post, Liu argued that his verdict violated China's constitution, and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of the United Nations. He argued that charges against him of 'spreading rumours, slandering and in other ways inciting the subversion of the government and overturning the socialist system' were contrived, as he did not fabricate or create false information, nor did he besmirch the good name and character of others by merely expressing a point of view, a value judgment.[48]

International response

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Polish mural in Warsaw, reading "Solidarity with Liu Xiaobo"

Liu's detention was condemned worldwide by organisations and other countries. On 11 December 2008, the U.S. Department of State called for Liu's release,[49] which was followed on 22 December 2008 by a similar request from a consortium of scholars, writers, lawyers and human rights advocates.[50] Additionally, on 21 January 2009, 300 international writers, including Salman Rushdie, Margaret Atwood, Ha Jin and Jung Chang, called for Liu's release in a statement put out through PEN.[39] In March 2009, the One World Film Festival awarded Liu Xiaobo the Homo Homini Award, organized by the People in Need foundation, for promoting freedom of speech, democratic principles and human rights.[51]

In December 2009, the European Union and United States issued formal appeals calling for the unconditional release of Liu Xiaobo.[52][53] China, responding to the international calls prior to the verdict, stated that other nations should "respect China's judicial sovereignty and to not do things that will interfere in China's internal affairs."[54]

Responding to the verdict, United Nations Human Rights Commissioner Navanethem Pillay expressed concern at the deterioration of political rights in China.[55] German Chancellor Angela Merkel strongly criticized the verdict, stating "despite the great progress in other areas in the expression of views, I regret that the Chinese government still massively restricts press freedom."[56] Canada and Switzerland also condemned the verdict.[57][58] The Republic of China President Ma Ying-jeou called on Beijing to "tolerate dissent".[59] On 6 January 2010, former Czech president Václav Havel joined with other communist-era dissidents at the Chinese Embassy in Prague to present a petition calling for Liu's release.[60] On 22 January 2010, European Association for Chinese Studies sent an open letter to Hu Jintao on behalf of over 800 scholars from 36 countries calling for Liu's release.[61]

On 18 January 2010, Liu was nominated for the 2010 Nobel Peace Prize by Václav Havel, the 14th Dalai Lama, André Glucksmann, Vartan Gregorian, Mike Moore, Karel Schwarzenberg, Desmond Tutu and Grigory Yavlinsky.[62] China's Foreign Ministry spokesperson Ma Zhaoxu stated that awarding the Nobel Peace Prize to Liu would be "totally wrong".[63] Geir Lundestad, a secretary of the Nobel Committee, stated the award would not be influenced by Beijing's opposition.[63] On 25 September 2010, The New York Times reported that a petition in support of the Nobel nomination was being circulated in China.[64]

On 14 September 2010, the Mayor of Reykjavík, Jón Gnarr, met on an unrelated matter with CPC Politburo member Liu Qi and demanded China set the dissident Liu Xiaobo free. Also that September Václav Havel, Dana Němcová and Václav Malý, leaders of Czechoslovakia's Velvet Revolution, published an open letter in the International Herald Tribune calling for the award to be given to Liu, while a petition began to circulate soon afterwards.[64][65]

On 6 October 2010, the non-governmental organization Freedom Now, which serves as an international counsel to Liu Xiaobo as retained by his family, publicly released a letter from 30 members of the U.S. Congress to President Barack Obama, urging him to directly raise both Liu's case and that of fellow imprisoned dissident Gao Zhisheng to Chinese President Hu Jintao at the G-20 Summit in November 2010.[66] The Republic of China President Ma Ying-jiu congratulated Liu on winning the Nobel Prize and requested Chinese authorities to improve their impression to the world about human rights, but not calling for his release from prison.[67]

In 2011, the WorldWideReading is dedicated to Liu Xiaobo; on March 20, there were readings in more than 60 towns and cities on all continents and broadcast via radio stations. The appeal "Freedom for Liu Xiaobo" has so far been supported by more than 700 writers from around the world, amongst them the Nobel Prize laureates John M. Coetzee, Nadine Gordimer, Herta Müller and Elfriede Jelinek, as well as Breyten Breytenbach, Eliot Weinberger, Salman Rushdie, Vikram Seth, Mario Vargas Llosa, Wolf Biermann and Dave Eggers.

The international literature festival called for a worldwide reading on 20 March 2011 for Liu Xiaobo. More than 700 authors from all continents signed the appeal and over 150 institutions took part in the event. [68]

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模板:Main On 8 October 2010, the Nobel Committee awarded Liu the Nobel Peace Prize "for his long and non-violent struggle for fundamental human rights in China,"[69] saying that Liu had long been front-runner as the recipient of the prize.[70]

China reacted negatively to the award, immediately censoring news about the announcement of the award in China, though later that day became available.模板:Clarify Foreign news broadcasters including CNN and the BBC were immediately blocked,[71] while heavy censorship was applied to personal communications.[72][73] The Chinese Foreign Ministry denounced the award to Liu Xiaobo, saying that it "runs completely counter to the principle of the award and is also a desecration of the Peace Prize."[74][75][76][77] The Norwegian ambassador to the People's Republic of China was summoned by the Foreign Ministry on 8 October 2010 and was presented with an official complaint about the granting of the Nobel Peace Prize to Liu.[78] The Chinese government has called Liu Xiaobo a criminal and stated that he does not deserve the prize. Chinese dissident Wei Jingsheng criticized Liu by calling him "the accomplice of the Communist regime."[79]

Following the announcement of the Nobel Peace Prize, celebrations in China were either stopped or curtailed,[80] and prominent intellectuals and other dissidents were detained, harassed or put under surveillance;[81] Liu's wife, Liu Xia, was placed under house arrest,[82] and was forbidden to talk to reporters even though no official charges were brought.[83] Sixty-five countries with missions in Norway were all invited to the Nobel Prize ceremony, but fifteen declined, in some cases due to heavy lobbying by China. Besides China, these countries were Russia, Kazakhstan, Tunisia, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, Iraq, Iran, Vietnam, Venezuela, Egypt, Sudan, Cuba and Morocco.[84][85]

China also imposed travel restrictions on known dissidents ahead of the ceremony. A Chinese group announced that its answer to the Nobel Peace Prize, the Confucius Peace Prize, would be awarded to former Taiwan Vice-President Lien Chan for the bridge of peace he has been building between Taiwan and Mainland China.[86] Lien Chan himself denied any knowledge of the $15,000 prize.[87][88]

Major publications

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  • Excellent Award (2004) for an article Corrupted News is not News, published on Open Magazine , January 2004 issue
  • Grand Prize (2005) for an article Paradise of the Powerful, Hell of the Vulnerable on Open Magazine, September 2004 issue
  • Excellent Award (2006) for The Causes and Ending of Shanwei Bloodshed on Open Magazine, January 2006

See also

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  1. "Verdict Against Liu Xiaobo". International PEN. Archived from the original on 8 March 2012. Retrieved 11 January 2012. 
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  4. Benjamin Kang Lim, China's top dissident arrested for subversion, Reuters, 24 June 2009.
  5. 5.0 5.1 "刘晓波因涉嫌煽动颠覆国家政权罪被依法逮捕" (Liu Xiaobo Formally Arrested on 'Suspicion of Inciting Subversion of State Power' Charges), China Review News, 24 June 2009,
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 Beijing No. 1 Intermediate Court, Criminal Verdict no. (2009) yi zhong xing chu zi 3901, unofficial English translation in Human Rights in China, "International Community Speaks Out on Liu Xiaobo Verdict," 30 December 2009.
  7. Dwyer Arce (December 10, 2010). "China dissident Liu Xiaobo awarded Nobel Peace Prize in absentia". JURIST - Paper Chase. 
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  18. 18.0 18.1 18.2 Liu Xiaobo, "我與《開放》結緣十九年模板:Dead link" (My 19 Years of Ties with "Open Magazine"), Open Magazine, 19 December 2006.
  19. Liberty Monthly, December 1988.
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  22. Liu Xiaobo, "刘晓波:美英自由联盟必胜" (Liu Xiaobo: Victory to the Anglo-American Freedom Alliance), Epoch Times, 13 April 2004.
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  27. 赵紫阳亡灵:不准悼念和禁忌松动, Translation: Revenant of Zhao Ziyang, Author: Liu Xiaobo, Independent Chinese Pen Center
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  35. "零八宪章签署者已过8600名,第十四批签名人正式名单" (Signatures to Charter 08 exceeds 8600, 14th list of signers attached), Boxun, 4 May 2009.
  36. "著名学者张祖桦、刘晓波'失踪,'" Boxun, 9 December 2008.
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  40. 中华人民共和国刑法 (Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China)
  41. 41.0 41.1 41.2 Canghai [沧海], "刘晓波案闪电移送法院 律师两次前往未能会见" [Liu Xiaobo's Case Quickly Escalated to the Court; Lawyers Twice Try to Meet with Liu to No Avail], Canyu [参与], 11 December 2009.模板:Dead link
  42. Human Rights Watch, "China: Liu Xiaobo's Trial a Travesty of Justice," 21 December 2009.
  43. Michael Anti, "Liu Xiaobo's brother-in-law says the trial ends without result. Waiting for lawyer coming out," 23 December 2009.
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  45. Cara Anna, "Diplomats Kept Away from China Dissident's Trial模板:Dead link," The Associated Press, 23 December 2009.
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  66. "Archive copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 June 2011. Retrieved 6 May 2012. 
  67. "Taiwan's Ma congratulates Nobel laureate Liu"模板:Dead link. The Associated Press. 9 October 2010.
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  87. 模板:Cite news
  88. 模板:Cite news模板:Dead link
  89. One World Homo Homini award goes to Chinese dissident,2009年3月12日.
  90. 模板:Cite news
  91. Liu Xiaobo De-World, 7 October 2010.
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