Vahvuhswhbiedkez (lahdingh cihmeh:O'zbek tili naeuz O'zbekcha, sihlijwh cihmeh: Ўзбек тили naeuz Ўзбекча; alhboz cihmeh: اوزبیک تیلی naeuz اوزبیکچه) gvihaeuj duhcez yijcuz, dwg Vuhsehbiedkezsehdanj guenfueng yijyenz. Miz iek seiq cien fanh boux yungh Vahvuhswhbiedkez guh vahcoj. Vahvuhswhbiedkez gvi doengnamz duhcez yijyenz, caeuq Vahveizvuzwj doxlumj raixcaix.
Aen diemj Vahvuhswhbiedkez caeuq vah doengh gizyawz mbouj doengz dwg: /a/,/ɒ/,/ɔ/ youq ndaw Vahvuhswhbiedkez yenzcwnzvaq, aenvih hawj Vahbohswh yingjyangj.
History[gaij | 编辑源代码]
Turkic speakers have probably settled in the Amu-Darya, Syr-Darya and Zeravshan river basins since at least AD600–700, gradually ousting or assimilating the speakers of Eastern Iranian languages who previously inhabited Soghdiana, Bactria and Chorasmia. The first Turkic dynasty in the region was that of the Karakhanids in the 9th–12th centuries AD, who were a confederation of Karluks (Qarluq), Chigil, Yaghma and other tribes.
Uzbek is a language which can be considered the direct descendant or a latter form of Chagatay, the language of great Turkic Central Asian literary development in the realm of Chagatai Khan, Timur (Tamerlane), and the Timurids. The language was championed by Mir Ali-Sher Nawa'i in the 15th and 16th centuries. Ultimately based on the Qarluq variant of the Turkic languages, it contained large numbers of Persian and Arabic loanwords. By the 19th century it was rarely used for literary composition.
The term "Uzbek" as applied to language has meant different things at different times. Prior to 1921 "Uzbek" and "Sart" were considered to be different dialects; "Uzbek" was a vowel-harmonised Kipchak dialect spoken by descendants of those who arrived in Transoxiana with Shaybani Khan in the 16th century, who lived mainly around Bukhara and Samarkand, although the Turkic spoken in Tashkent was also vowel-harmonised; "Sart" was a Qarluq dialect spoken by the older settled Turkic populations of the region in the Ferghana Valley and the Kashka-Darya region, and in some parts of what is now the Samarkand Province; it contained a heavier admixture of Persian and Arabic, and did not use vowel-harmony. In Khiva Sarts spoke a form of highly Persianised Oghuz Turkic. After 1921 the Soviet regime abolished the term Sart as derogatory, and decreed that henceforth the entire settled Turkic population of Turkestan would be known as Uzbeks, even though many had no Uzbek tribal heritage. The standard written language that was chosen for the new republic in 1924, however, despite the protests of Uzbek Bolsheviks such as Faizullah Khojaev, was not pre-revolutionary "Uzbek" but the "Sart" language of the Samarkand region. All three dialects continue to exist within modern, spoken Uzbek.
Number of speakers[gaij | 编辑源代码]
In the CIS countries, there are about 24.7 million people who speak dialects of Uzbek. In Uzbekistan, 21 million people speak Uzbek as their native language. There are about 1.2 million speakers in Tajikistan, 1 million in Afghanistan, 550,096 in Kyrgyzstan, 332,017 in Kazakhstan, and 317,333 in Turkmenistan. According to the 2004 census, about 14,5000模板:Clarify people in Xinjiang in China speak Uzbek. Because the Uzbeks in Xinjiang are so close to the Uyghur people, who form an ethnic plurality there, Uzbeks are assimilated by Uyghurs..
Cihciq[gaij | 编辑源代码]
Vahvuhswhbiedkez coengz Vahahlahboz、Vah'wzlozswh ciq le haujlai saw.
Fuengyenz[gaij | 编辑源代码]
Gij fuengyenz vahvuhswhbiedkez miz haujlai cungj, baugavq Tashkent fuengyenz、Afghan fuengyenz、Khorezm fuengyenz、Chimkent-Turkestan fuengyenz caeuq Surkhandarya fuengyenz.
Sawsij haehdungj[gaij | 编辑源代码]
Before 1928, the Uzbek language, like most Central Asian languages, was written in various forms of the Arabic script (Yana imla) by the literate population. Between 1928 and 1940, as part of comprehensive programs to educate (and politically influence) Uzbek people, who for the first time now had their own cartographically delineated (administrative) region, Uzbek writing was switched to Latin script (Yanalif; a proposal for the latinization of Yana imla was already developed in 1924). The latinization of Uzbek was carried out in the context of latinization of all Turkic languages, and would not have happened if other Turkic languages had not been Latinized.
In 1940, Uzbek was switched to Cyrillic script under Joseph Stalin. Until 1992, Uzbek continued to be written using a Cyrillic alphabet almost everywhere, but now in Uzbekistan the Latin script has been officially re-introduced, although the use of Cyrillic is still widespread. The deadline in Uzbekistan for making this transition has been repeatedly changed. The latest deadline was 2005, but was shifted once again to provide a few more years.
Already education in many areas of Uzbekistan is in the Latin script, and in 2001 the Latin script began to be used for coins. Since 2004 some official websites have switched over to using the Latin script when writing in Uzbek. Most street signs are also in the new Latin script.
In the Xinjiang province of China, Uzbek has no official orthography. Some speakers write using the Cyrillic script, while others write using the Uyghur script 模板:Which?, as that is the language they have used when they went to school.模板:Citation needed
Table of Uzbek Cyrillic and Latin alphabets, and represented sounds
|A a||А а||/a, æ/||chai, cat|
|B b||Б б||/b/||bat|
|D d||Д д||/d̪/||den|
|E e||Е е / Э э||/e/[N 1]||sleigh|
|F f||Ф ф||/ɸ/|
|G g||Г г||/ɡ/||go|
|H h||Ҳ ҳ||/h/||hoe|
|I i||И и||/i, ɨ/||me|
|J j||Ж ж||/dʒ/||joke|
|K k||К к||/k/||cold|
|L l||Л л||/l/||list|
|M m||М м||/m/||man|
|N n||Н н||/n/||next|
|O o||О о||/ɒ, o/[N 2]||(Received Pronunciation) hot, go|
|P p||П п||/p/||pin|
|Q q||Қ қ||/q/|
|R r||Р р||/r/||(trilled) rat|
|S s||С с||/s/||sick|
|T t||Т т||/t̪/||toe|
|U u||У у||/u, y/||zoo|
|V v||В в||/w/||west|
|X x||Х х||/χ/|
|Y y||Й й||/j/||yes|
|Z z||З з||/z/||zebra|
|Oʻ oʻ||Ў ў||/ø/||offer|
|Gʻ gʻ||Ғ ғ||/ʁ/|
|Sh sh||Ш ш||/ʃ/||shoe|
|Ch ch||Ч ч||/tʃ/||chew|
|Yo yo||Ё ё||/jo/||yo|
|Yu yu||Ю ю||/ju/||you|
|Ya ya||Я я||/ja/||yawn|
|S s / Ts ts||Ц ц||/ts/||lets|
- ↑ Cyrillic "Е е" at the beginning of the word and after a vowel is "Ye ye" in Latin.
- ↑ Pronounced /o/ only in Russian loanwords.
Text sample[gaij | 编辑源代码]
Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights
|Uzbek in Latin script||Uzbek in Cyrillic script||Uzbek in Arabic script||English|
|Barcha odamlar erkin, qadr-qimmat va huquqlarda teng bo'lib tug'iladilar. Ular aql va vijdon sohibidirlar va bir-birlari ila birodarlarcha muomala qilishlari zarur.||Барча одамлар эркин, қадр-қиммат ва ҳуқуқларда тенг бўлиб туғиладилар. Улар ақл ва виждон соҳибидирлар ва бир-бирлари ила биродарларча муомала қилишлари зарур.||برچه آدملر ایرکین، قدر-قیمت و حقوقلرده تنگ بولیب توغیله دیلر. اولر عقل و وجدان صاحبیدیلر و بیر-بیرلری ایله برادرلرچه معامله قیلیشلری ضرور.||All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.|
|Uning akasi bu yil universitetni bitirdi.||Uning akisi bu yil uniwërsitëtni püttürdi.||His brother graduated from University this year.|
|Uning yuzi qizardi.||Uning yüzi qizardi.||He blushed.|
|Men har haftada ikki soat dars olaman.||Men her heptide ikki saet ders alimen(oquymen).||I have two hours of lessons every week.|
|Bu mamlakatning aholisi baxtiyordir.||Bu memliketning ahalisi bextiyardur.||The people of this country are happy.|
|Bu ishni men muddatidan oldin bajardim.||Bu ishni men mudditidin aldin(burun) bijirdim.||I completed this work before the set time.|
See also[gaij | 编辑源代码]
References[gaij | 编辑源代码]
Sources[gaij | 编辑源代码]
- Mamatov, Jahangir; Horlick, Michael; Kadirova, Karamat: A Comprehensive Uzbek - English Dictionary (eds.) Hyattsville, Maryland, 2 vols. (2011)
- Lars Johanson (1998) The History of Turkic. In Lars Johanson & Éva Ágnes Csató (eds) The Turkic Languages. London, New York: Rouiden & London, 1934, pp. 175–6
- Yuri Bregel "The Sarts in the Khanate of Khiva" Journal of Asian History Vol.12 (1978) pp. 146–9
- András J. E. Bodrogligeti: Modern Literary Uzbek – A Manual for Intensive Elementary, Intermediate, and Advanced Courses (Munich, Lincom 2002), 2 vols.
- William Fierman: Language planning and national development. The Uzbek experience (Berlin etc., de Gruyter 1991).
- Khayrulla Ismatulla: Modern literary Uzbek (Bloomington, Indiana University Press 1995).
- Karl A. Krippes: Uzbek–English dictionary (Kensington, Dunwoody 1996).
- Republic of Uzbekistan, Ministry of Higher and Middle Eductation (2004). Lotin yozuviga asoslangan o‘zbek alifbosi va imlosi (Latin writing based Uzbek alphabet and orthography), Tashken Finance Institute: Tashkent.
- Andrée F. Sjoberg: Uzbek Structural Grammar (The Hague, 1963).
- A. Shermatov "A New Stage in the Development of Uzbek Dialectology" Essays on Uzbek History, Culture and Language Ed. Bakhtiyar A. Nazarov & Denis Sinor (Bloomington, Indiana) 1993 pp. 101–9
- Natalie Waterson (ed.): Uzbek–English dictionary (Oxford etc., Oxford University Press 1980).
External links[gaij | 编辑源代码]
- Ethnologue: Uzbek, Northern, Uzbek, Southern
- Classification of Turkic Languages: 
- English-Uzbek online, wap translator http://tr2.uz
- Mark Dickens: Introduction to the Uzbek Language (Oxus Communications)
- Mark Dickens: Principal Orthographic Rules For The Uzbek Language, translation of Uzbekistan Cabinet of Minister's Resolution No. 339, of August 24, 1995
- Uzbek alphabet (Omniglot)
- Paul Rodrigues: Uzbek language Materials
- Uzbek Teachionary Word Sets
- Nigora Azimova: Language Materials/Teaching/Learning Uzbek
- English-Uzbek, Uzbek-English mobile dictionary http://tr2.uz/abc.jar
- Uzbek English online dictionary http://zangorikema.com
- Uzbek English online Dictionary http://www.ismanov.com
- Uzbek–Turkish online dictionary
- A short English Uzbek Japanese phrasebook(renewal) incl. sound file
- Uzbek Cyrillic–Latin converter
- Uzbek to Turkish Translation (Beta)